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MAY I RECITE KIDDUSH BY HEART

Selected Halachos from the “One Minute Halachaproject
By HaRav Yosef Yeshaya Braun, Shlita
Mara D
asra and member of the Badatz of Crown Heights


MAY WE SAY PARTS OF THE WRITTEN TORAH BY HEART?

There are two parts to the Torah: Torah sh’Bichsav (the Written Torah) and Torah shebe’al peh (the Oral Torah). The halacha is, “D’varim sh’Bichsav ee ata rashai le’omram al peh” (Verses from the written Torah may not be recited by heart); they should be read from a k’sav (a written text). However, the common custom is that people do recite verses from Torah sh’Bichsav be’al peh (by heart)—and there are no less than ten explanations given as to why and when it’s permitted.

The two main explanations cited by poskim are:

1) The halacha applies only in case one wishes to exempt others from their chiyuv (obligation); however, when one is saying verses of Torah sh’Bichsav be’al peh for themselves, it’s permissible.

2) Another opinion—which is the mainstream one—is that the halacha applies only to texts that are not commonly known. According to some poskim, N’viim (the Prophets) and K’suvim (the Writings) may be said be’al peh, and certainly T’hillim, which is known by many.

It’s questionable why some people say Vayechulu in Kiddush be’al peh, even when they are exempting others; however, since Vayechulu is commonly known, the custom is to be lenient.

CAN MY BLENDER BE CONSIDERED PARVE IF I USED IT TO BLEND MEAT?

One may use the same blender or food processor that was used for processing meat to blend parve food; the food remains parve and may even be eaten together with milchigs. However, it’s only permissible if:

only cold meat was placed in the blender;

the blender was not washed with hot water if any meat residue was left on it;

no sharp food, such as onion or garlic, was placed in the blender together with the meat; and

it was ascertained that the blender was clean of all fleishig residue before using it to blend parve food.

According to some poskim,

if sharp food, such as onion or garlic, which had been cut with a fleishige knife, was processed in the blender, the blender becomes fleishig;

if hot meat was processed in the blender, and one wishes to use it afterwards to blend cold parve food—and eat it with milchigs—one may do so only if they have no other blender. However, this should not be done regularly.

It should be noted that there are studies that have shown that some blenders and food processors produce heat, and some argue that these blenders may actually reach a temperature higher than yad soledes bo (the level of heat which is deemed significant according to halacha); in such a case it would be considered as if the meat was actually cooked in that blender. The halacha is then the same as it is for parve food that was cooked in a fleishige pot.

I SAID THE WRONG BRACHA ACHARONA (AFTER BLESSING); SHOULD I BENCH AGAIN?

The bracha acharona of borei nefashos does not exempt one from the obligation of saying the bracha acharona of me’ein shalosh (al hamichya, al ha’eitz, or al hagafen). If a person said borei nefashos by mistake, they nevertheless have to say the bracha me’ein shalosh. The reverse is also true: me’ein shalosh does not exempt one from the obligation of saying borei nefashos; and if one was supposed to say borei nefashos, but said al haeitz, al hamichya, or al hagefen instead, they still have to say borei nefashos. (There is an exception to this rule when saying al haeitz on fruit which deserve borei nefashos.)

If a person said al hamichya instead of bentching (saying the full Grace After Meals), there is a machlokes (difference of opinion) among poskim regarding what should be done. The consensus is that one is not yotzei (has not met his obligation) if they said al hamichya. One of the reasons is because they omitted two central themes in the second bracha of benching, which are bris (circumcision)—brischa shechasamta (Your covenant which You have sealed in our flesh) and Torah—Torasecha shelimadetanu (Your Torah that You have taught us). The second bracha expresses our appreciation for receiving Eretz Yisroel which we have earned through observing the mitzvos of bris mila and Torah. As mentioned, the accepted practice is to bench again, since the general mitzvah of bentching is min ha’Torah, and when it comes to a d’Oraisa (Biblical commandment) we are stringent. According to many opinions, women should not bench again.

If a person bentched instead of saying me’ein shalosh after having partaken of dates, wine, or mezonos, they have fulfilled their obligation bedieved (after the fact). The reason is because these three foods satiate, and the first bracha in benching, Hazan es ha’olam (The One Who sustains the world) is considered bedieved an appropriate bracha. However, if one ate other food that required the bracha me’ein shalosh to be said, they are not yotzei with bentching, and have to say the bracha me’ein Shalosh.

GUIDELINES FOR A CHAZAN

One of the essential qualifications for leading the davening in shul is a pleasant, melodious voice. Seifer Chassidim writes that a person blessed with a pleasant voice should use it for davening to Hashem and praising Him, and not for mundane purposes.

On Shabbos in particular, the shliach tzibbur (individual leading the services) is expected to daven loudly, beautifully, and at length in order to inspire the mispallelim (congregants) and enhance their davening. Shulchan Aruch states that a shliach tzibbur who davens at length, utilizing his voice to inspire his fellow mispallelim, should be commended, but one whose intention is simply to show off his vocal abilities is contemptible.

It’s related that some g’dolei Yisroel would keep this text of Shulchan Aruch in front of them while serving as shliach tzibbur in order to be constantly mindful of their objective: to enhance the davening of those present, not to exhibit their talent.

PARVE FOOD COOKED IN A FLEISHIG POT

Question: May one cook parve food in a fleishig pot and eat it together with milchigs? For example, may one use hot water cooked in a fleishig pot for a milchig coffee?

Answer: Parve food that has been cooked in a fleishig pot may be eaten together with milchigs, as long as the pot was not ben-yomo (the pot had not been used for hot meat, or hot meat residue, within the previous 24 hours). However, this should not be done l’chat’chilla (with the intention of eating that food with milchigs), unless there is no other pot available.

Some poskim suggest that a different halacha applies to water. For example, water cooked in a non-ben-yomo fleishig pot should not be used to make a milchig coffee. This is because water is readily available, and pouring it out is of no consequence. However, if there is no other pot available, one may boil water l’chat’chilla in a not ben-yomo fleishig pot with the intention of using it with milchigs.

Since a kettle is often kept on a blech or hotplate next to fleishigs on Shabbos, it may inadvertently become halachically fleishig; one should therefore preferably be careful not to use water from a kettle that has become fleishig to make a milchig coffee, tea, or to warm up milk in a baby bottle—unless, twenty four hours have passed and there is no other utensil available for boiling water.

IS IT PERMISSIBLE TO USE “SHABBOS MAKEUP” ON SHABBOS AND YOM TOV?

One may not color one’s face on Shabbos or Yom Tov due to the malacha of tzoveia (coloring) or memareiach (smoothing), as well as other possible melachos which are forbidden on Shabbos. Even if the coloring is eino miskayem (does not last), it’s nevertheless forbidden.

There are products on the market called Shabbos Makeup; this is a misnomer. According to most poskim there is no makeup that may be applied on Shabbos. There is a minority opinion that maintains that if it’s eino miskayem klal (does not last at all), such as dry, loose powder that does not cling to the skin, it’s permissible; however, even according to this opinion—which is rejected by many poskim— the following conditions have to be met:

1. One has to be certain that nothing has been added to the powder, such as oil-based ingredients. The powder must have a reputable hechsher or rabbinic endorsement, attesting to the fact that it has been thoroughly researched and tested for use on Shabbos.

2. It may not be applied on top of existing foundation, concealer, previous makeup, or to a wet face. One may only use a dry brush.

3. One has to make sure not to combine more than one type of powder or to apply two colors to the same area of the skin. Each color requires its own brush.

4. One may not use Q-tips, sponges, applicators, or their fingers to apply it.

5. The powder must be loose before Shabbos in order not to transgress the issur (prohibition) of tochein (grinding).

Even if all the above conditions have been met, there remains the concern of mar’is ayin—that it might appear (to others) that the makeup was applied in a forbidden manner on Shabbos. This is because some people may not be aware that it’s possible—according to some opinions —to apply powder on Shabbos in a permissible manner. It would only be permitted if women in that particular frum(observant) community apply powder in this manner. However, since it’s well known that there is makeup on the market that can be applied before Shabbos and lasts throughout Shabbos, this isn’t a serious halachic concern.

Finally, there are many who question the commercial application of the lenient halachic approach. It has been argued that it’s almost impossible to implement it, as there are no objective, clearly defined guidelines to distinguish between eino miskayem and eino miskayem klal.

For these and other reasons, one should not use makeup on Shabbos or Yom Tov, even so-called Shabbos makeup.


“One Minute Halacha” is a succinct daily presentation on practical Halacha in video, audio, and text formats, and can be accessed by phone at
718.989.9599, by email, halacha2go@gmail.com, or by WhatsApp 347.456.5665.

 

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