G-D’S RETURN WITH THE JEWISH PEOPLE FROM EXILE
August 31, 2013
The Rebbe in #894, D'var Malchus, Moshiach & Geula, Nitzavim-VaYeilech

“Our Rabbis learned… that the Divine Presence resides with the Jewish people, as it were, amidst the suffering of their exile. But He has inscribed redemption for Himself when they are to be redeemed, for He will return with them.”

Translated by Boruch Merkur

1. Rashi questions the wording of the verse, “G-d, your L-rd, will return (with) your captivity,”1 saying, “The verse should have read, ‘He will return your captivity.’” The intent here, in Rashi’s analysis, is: a) Instead of saying, “V’shav” ((He) will return (Himself) [i.e., in the reflexive tense]), the verse should have said, “V’heishiv” (He will return (your captivity)); b) Why does it say, “G-d, your L-rd”?2 Prior3 to this verse it says that the necessary preface and cause for “V’shav” [i.e., the resulting “return” of your captivity] is, “You shall return to G-d, your L-rd,” defining a causal relationship, measure for measure. That is, if “You shall return (to G-d, your L-rd), then “(He) will return, etc.” Thus, it is apparent4 that the return (whether it is “V’shav” [i.e., G-d should cause Himself to return] or “V’heishiv” [i.e., G-d should return others, namely, “your captivity,” the exiles of the Jewish people]) refers to “G-d, your L-rd,” the Holy One Blessed Be He. Rashi answers [the question he posed regarding the unusual occurrence of the word “V’shav”]: “Our Rabbis5 learned from here6 that the Divine Presence resides with the Jewish people, as it were, amidst the suffering of their exile. But He has inscribed redemption for Himself when they are to be redeemed, for He will return with them.”

We must understand the following:

a) Earlier, in the Torah portion Shmos,7 Rashi had already remarked that the fact that G-d appeared to Moshe Rabbeinu “from amidst the [burning] bush” is “because ‘I am with him [i.e., the Jewish people] in [their] suffering.’” How then could Rashi say here that we learn this for the first time “from here” that the Divine Presence resides with the Jewish people amidst the suffering of their exile when we already know this from the portion Shmos?

b) “I am with him in suffering” is an explicit verse8 [in Tanach]. Thus, it is unnecessary to learn this concept “from here” from an analysis of another verse.8*

c) In the verse, “G-d, your L-rd, will return,” it says only that G-d returns from exile. Where does Rashi infer the emphasis that “the Divine Presence resides with the Jewish people…amidst the suffering of their exile”? From this verse we only know that the Divine Presence is with them9; not that He is with them in suffering per se, a concept that is apparent in the verse, “I am with him in suffering,” or the verse, “Amidst all their suffering, He suffers.”10

d) Since Rashi remarks that “the Divine Presence resides with the Jewish people…amidst the suffering of their exile,” it is already clear, necessarily, that when the Jewish people leave exile, the Divine Presence will also leave exile.11 Why must Rashi make specific reference to the fact that “when they are to be redeemed, etc., He will return with them”?

e) Even if Rashi wants to mention this explicitly (notwithstanding the fact that it is seemingly self-understood) in order to elucidate the terminology, “G-d, your L-rd, will return,”12 he should have only said, “when they are redeemed, He will return with them.” What is his intent with the words, “He has inscribed redemption for Himself”?

2. Rashi continues after the citation quoted above: “Moreover, we could say that that the day of the ingathering of the exiles is so great and with so much strife that it is as if He personally needs to literally hold the hand of every single person [to extract each one] from his place [in exile], as the concept is expressed in the verse, ‘You, the Jewish people, shall be gathered one by one.’13 Indeed, this concept is also found with regard to the gentile nations, as it is said, ‘I shall return the returnees of the Ammonite people.’”14

The following must be understood:

a) Why must Rashi utilize two explanations?

The fact that Rashi does not suffice with [the latter part of his response, beginning with the words], “Moreover, we could say,” can, at first glance, be explained, as follows. The words, “G-d, your L-rd, will return” (meaning that G-d will return, as it were, from exile) suggest that He is found in exile, as it were, even prior to the time of “(He) will return,”16 and not only that He will go there on “the day of the ingathering of the exiles” in order to extract the Jewish people from there. Thus, there is a need for the explanation “that the Divine Presence resides with the Jewish people, as it were, amidst the suffering of their exile, etc.”17

However, the following is still not understood. Why does Rashi need, “Moreover, we could say, etc.,” not sufficing with the first explanation?18

b) The verse speaks about the redemption of Jews. Why then does Rashi conclude with, “Indeed, this concept is also found with regard to the gentile nations, etc.”?2

c) The quandary is even more puzzling. In order to cite proof that G-d will take every individual out of exile, it would have sufficed for Rashi to quote the words, “You…shall be gathered one by one,” omitting the words, “the Jewish people,” which appear at the end of the sentence [in the original Hebrew, making it seemingly extraneous here]. This inclusion indicates that Rashi wants to emphasize that the fact that “He personally needs to literally hold the hand of every single person [to extract each one] from his place [in exile]” is also applicable to the Jewish people [and not just the gentile nations].

(The latter is also inferred from the verse that is central to our discussion, “G-d, your L-rd, will return (with) your captivity” (according to the second interpretation), as follows. The fact that “He personally needs to literally hold the hand of every single person, etc.” is in virtue of the fact that G-d is “your L-rd.”3)

If so, why does Rashi follow this with, “Indeed, this concept is also found with regard to the gentile nations, etc.”?

d) Why is the lengthy discussion, requiring proofs from the works of the Prophets, etc., relevant here?

e) What does Rashi intend to add with the word “literally,”4 thereby negating the usual interpretation of G-d’s “hand,” mentioned in his commentary on the Torah portion VaEs’chanan?21*

3. The answers to all these questions will emerge from a prefatory discussion of a concept that is common to all of the Patriarchs5 – that [it was said of them that] G-d is with them. The simple meaning of this statement is as follows. The Patriarchs enjoyed treatment from On High that was beyond the natural order, to the extent that everyone perceived that their success came from G-d.6 Thus,7 the verse emphasizes that G-d was with them (although He is omnipresent – “in the heavens above and upon the earth below”24* – as it is written, “I fill the heavens and the earth”8), meaning that He was with them and He protected them in a manner that was plainly revealed, [for which reason]they experienced [a miraculous degree of] success, etc.

The same principle applies to the Jewish people, even9 during the time of exile. The fact that it is apparent to all that G-d gives special attention to them [protecting them] – being one sheep among seventy wolves, but it remains safe10 – illustrates that G-d is with the Jewish people (as learned earlier regarding the exile to Egypt, the first (and root11) of all exiles, “The L-rd will be with you12). An example of the latter concept is what is said of the Jewish people when they are redeemed: “the Divine Presence is with them.”

It is understood, however, that this concept is distinct from what is referred to in the verse, “G-d, your L-rd, will return (with) your captivity (and not “with you” and the like). The term here (that G-d’s “return” occurs with your captives (with your return, returning from exile)), indicates that prior to the redemption, G-d is (restricted, as it were, in the lands of the gentiles, and of consequence) distanced and expelled, as it were, from His “home.”13 The concept that G-d is found with the Jewish people in exile in order to protect them from the “seventy wolves,” on the other hand, means the exact opposite! He is there in order to help them; certainly He is not in “exile.”

Thus, Rashi says that here there is a different meaning to “the Divine Presence resides with the Jewish people…amidst the suffering of their exile.” Namely, that He is indeed suffering, as it were, from exile. Therefore, there must be, “G-d, your L-rd, will return (with) your captivity.”

4. The above discussion sheds light on what Rashi says, “Our Rabbis learned from here, etc.,” notwithstanding the fact that it is (at first glance) an explicit Scriptural verse: “I am with him [i.e., the Jewish people] in [their] suffering.”

From the verse, “I am with him in suffering,” we know31 only32 that on account of the great fondness G-d has for the Jewish people, when the Jewish people happen to be in a predicament – may G-d have mercy upon us – G-d is also troubled by it, as it were.

(Thus, G-d revealed Himself to Moshe “from amidst the bush” (of prickly thorns), in order to indicate that He shares in the sorrow of the Jewish people.32* That is, He is troubled and “pricked [by a sharp thorn],” as it were, by the suffering of the Jewish people, may G-d have mercy upon us.)

The fact that He is troubled by the suffering of the Jewish people still does not mean that He is in exile,33 but only that the suffering and misfortunes of Jews cause Him to suffer.34

However, from here, from this verse (in the portion Nitzavim), “G-d, your L-rd, will return,” our Rabbis derive the teaching “that the Divine Presence resides with the Jewish people, as it were, amidst the suffering of their exile” – the Divine Presence Itself is together with the Jewish people, as it were, in exile.35

5. This line of reasoning, however, begs the following question. Since G-d Himself is “amidst the suffering of their exile” – that is, He too is in exile in the lands of the gentile nations, as it were – how can He redeem Himself together with the Jewish people? Logic clearly dictates and it is readily discerned – even a five-year-old sees – that “a bound person cannot free himself”!36

In response to this question, Rashi says, “He has inscribed redemption for Himself when they are to be redeemed.” Prior to going into exile, He had “inscribed (for this had occurred once before – in the desert) that when the time that “they are to be redeemed” will arrive, when the Jewish people need to be redeemed from exile, then the [angels called] Sarim (who, together with G-d, rule over the Jewish people, as it were) will have no say36* with regard to [the eventuality that] “G-d, your L-rd, will return.” That is the intent of Rashi with, “He has inscribed redemption for Himself,” meaning that he has “inscribed” [i.e., predestined] for Himself a redemption.

One might think that since “He has inscribed redemption for Himself,” when the time for the redemption arrives, G-d Himself will be freed from exile first and only then will He redeem the Jewish people. Rashi, therefore, adds, “He will return with them,” for the event of “G-d, your L-rd, will return” will be “with your captivity,” concurrent with the return of the Jewish people.37 And as long as the ingathering of the exiles of all the Jews has not been completed (even if a single Jew still remains in exile), “the Divine Presence resides with the Jewish people…amidst the suffering of their exile.”

6. After all the above discussion, the following is still not understood. It is true that on account of the fact that “the Divine Presence resides with the Jewish people…amidst the suffering of their exile,” a distinction also emerges with regard to the redemption (that G-d will return from the suffering of exile), however, the innovative concept here is primarily associated with the exile [i.e., G-d resides with the Jewish people amidst their suffering in exile]. Then why does the verse say with regard to the redemption, “(He) will return…your captivity” [suggesting the primacy of the concept of His redemption, unlike the emphasis on the exile in Rashi’s commentary]?

For that reason, Rashi continues, “Moreover, we could say” – that the words, “G-d, your L-rd, will return,” signify another concept,38 one that pertains to the ingathering of the exiles (the concept of redemption). Namely, since the ingathering of all the Jewish people, from all the places of exile is a difficult thing to accomplish, therefore, the verse states, “G-d, your L-rd, will return,” for such a great and difficult task can only be accomplished by G-d.

7. However, the latter explanation begs the question of the “five-year-old who begins to learn Scripture”: If the ingathering of the exiles is a difficult task, this difficulty would not be limited strictly to the ingathering of Jewish exiles. (In fact, since the Jewish people are considered as a single person,39 the ingathering of the Jews would be easier than that of the gentiles, l’havdil, who do not have a connection between them.39)

Therefore, why does the verse emphasize that the “return” is on account of the fact that “G-d (is) your L-rd”?

For that reason, Rashi goes on at length and in detail, quoting the verse: “The day of the ingathering of the exiles is so great and with so much strife that it is as if He personally needs to literally hold the hand of every single person [to extract each one] from his place [in exile], as the concept is expressed in the verse, ‘You, the Jewish people (the concept of extracting each one from his place applies also to Jews40), shall be gathered one by one.’ Indeed, this concept is also found with regard to the gentile nations, as it is said, ‘I shall return the returnees of the Ammonite people’” (since [with regard to the ingathering of the Jewish exiles] it is “so great, etc. (there must be), He personally, etc.”), but this is not so in other cases (that they [i.e., the gentiles] shall be gathered one by one).

8. Still we must understand the following. All matters are determined by Divine particular providence [i.e., every single detail of events, regardless of how minute and seemingly insignificant – even, for example, the number of times a leaf turns over in the wind as it falls to the ground – is under the supervision and determination of G-d]. Thus, also regarding the “gentile nations” (for example, the Ammonite people, mentioned above) there is Divine particular providence, (that is, not only will the nation (of Amon) in general be returned from exile, but also) determining which people of the nation (of Amon) will be redeemed and in what manner. Therefore, it follows, at first glance, that “hold[ing] the hand of every single person” must also apply to the “gentile nations.”

This matter will be clarified by analyzing two diverging streams of thought regarding how far – or to what degree of detail – Divine providence extends. The opinion of Rambam41 is that Divine providence only extends to human beings. In seeming contrast with the Rambam’s view is that of the Baal Shem Tov, who opines that Divine providence applies even to the mineral kingdom, as well as the plant and animal kingdom. However, the following well known insight of Chassidus42 resolves the two approaches, explaining how the statement of the Rambam actually does not contradict the approach of the Baal Shem Tov.43

There are two general manners of providence from Above: a) as it is plainly revealed, b) as it is clothed within the concealment and the garments of nature, and the like. Rambam’s statement – that there is no Divine providence over the mineral, plant, and animal kingdoms – only applies to the revealed providence from On High. [That is, only man is governed by revealed Divine providence, whereas the concealed providence from G-d applies to everything.] 

Accordingly we can understand why it is said specifically regarding the Jewish people that G-d will “hold the hand of every single person,” notwithstanding the fact that also regarding the exiles of the “gentile nations” it is certain that providence determines whom among them will be redeemed and in what manner. Namely, because the providence that is upon the individual people of the gentile nations is concealed within the garments of nature in a manner that exemplifies the providence extended to the mineral, plant, and animal kingdoms,44 being that “You [the Jewish people] are called ‘man,’ but gentile nations are not called ‘man.’”45

Of consequence, when we are speaking about “(He) will return” or “I shall return,” which indicate an action that is overtly recognized as being performed by G-d (as discussed above, at the end of Section 6), the following distinction applies. “I shall return,” referring to the “Ammonite people,” is only regarding the nation in general. Whereas, with regard to the Jewish people, the “(He) will return” also applies to every Jew as an individual (since with regard to every single Jew it is said, “G-d, your L-rd” (Havaya Elokecha) in the singular46 [not the plural, “Havaya Elokeichem]) – “He personally needs to literally hold the hand of every single person…‘You, the Jewish people, shall be gathered one by one.’”

Divine particular providence extends to the Jewish people always, even amidst the time of exile. However, during the time of the darkness of exile, intellectual contemplation is required to perceive this Divine providence, which was not the case at the time when the Temple stood nor will it be so of the [future Era of] Redemption.

Thus, with regard to the concept of redemption, it is “literally [that He] hold[s] the hand” (without any concealment), whereas regarding exile it says, “He will not fail [to grasp you with His hands],” mentioning only “His hands” [not the word “literally,” indicating a concealment of Divine providence].

The latter explanation also sheds light on the use of the word “literally,” as follows. The Divine providence of “[He] hold[s] the hand,” which is invested within the garments of nature, also applies to the “Ammonite people,” however, without mention of “literally” [a term reserved for the Jewish people, indicating that the Divine providence that extends to Jews is without any concealment].

9. Expressed in the lexicon of the “wine of the Torah” [i.e., the inner, mystical dimension of the Torah]:

According to the above discussion, it is still difficult to understand: Since regarding the ingathering of the Jewish exiles, every individual Jew is significant in the eyes of G-d, it follows that until the last Jew is redeemed, the Divine Presence remains, as it were, “amidst the suffering of their exile.” Thus, the following question emerges: How can it be said that G-d redeems the Jewish people in a manner of “hold[ing] the hand of every single person,” for at the time when He “literally hold[s] the hand,” saving a Jew from exile, in a manner of “(He) will return (with) your captivity,” He is saved together with the first Jew from exile?!

We must, therefore, say that the level regarding which it says, “He…hold[s] the hand of every single person,” is [only] a contracted and individualized emanation of G-dliness, which, so to speak, is connected with and becomes apportioned to46* every individual Jew. Thus, it is possible that the specific Divine emanation connected with an individual Jew (whom G-d holds literally by the hand) should go out of exile, notwithstanding the fact that other Jews remain in exile.47 Whereas, the redemption of the aspect of the very root [or essence] of the Divine Presence (ikar Sh’china), which transcends division, will only occur when all Jews are redeemed.

In fact, the latter point is alluded to in Rashi’s saying, “But He has inscribed redemption for Himself when they are to be redeemed,” as follows. The redemption “for Himself” (l’Atzmo) (the Divine Essence (Atzmus)) will take place “when they are to be redeemed” (“they,” in the plural), when all the Jewish people are redeemed. And as Rashi emphasizes also with the expression, “for He will return with them,” as mentioned above at the end of Section 5.

10. This concept is alluded to in Rashi’s wording of the phrase, “He has inscribed redemption for Himself when they will be redeemed”[in the passive tense]. For, at first glance, it will be readily apparent that the redemption of the Jewish people will be by the hand of G-d, as it is explicitly mentioned in several places and as Rashi mentions (in the section beginning with the words, “Moreover, we could say”), “He personally…hold[s] the hand of every single person.” Why then does Rashi employ the phrase, “when they will be redeemed,” suggesting that they will be redeemed in a manner that is virtually automatic (instead of, “when He redeems them” [which would emphasize the role of G-d in the process of redemption])?

The answer emerges from a discussion49 of two different descriptions of G-d’s Creation. Creation, as it is attributed to G-d’s name Elokim, is described as being [active], “Elokim created,” whereas Creation as it is associated with the aspect of G-d signified by the word “He,” [with its connotation of being] hidden and concealed, is described as: “He commanded and they were created” [in the passive tense].

The aspect of Divinity that is connected with redeeming every Jew individually, “every single person  from his place [in exile],” comes about through “His hands, etc.” [insofar as He “hold[s] the hand of every single person”], and thus it is self-evident that it is G-d Who “holds the hand, etc.” Whereas, when speaking of how “(He has inscribed redemption for) Himself,” signifying the very Essence of G-d, which will occur “when they will be redeemed,” the complete redemption of the entire Jewish body50 – at that level, “they will be redeemed” in a manner that is virtually automatic.

11. Another concept is alluded to in the commentary of Rashi we are discussing:

Notwithstanding the fact that the concept of “He has inscribed redemption for Himself when they will be redeemed” will take place after the completion of “He…literally hold[s] the hand of every single person [to extract each one] from his place [in exile],” nevertheless, Rashi first mentions the concept of “when they will be redeemed, etc.” and only then “He…literally hold[s] the hand of every single person, etc.” The reason for this [counterintuitive] order is that the redemption of the entire Jewish people is the purpose51 that brings to “He…literally hold[s] the hand of every single person.”52

Rashi thereby introduces an instruction in the service of G-d. Namely, when a Jew wishes to redeem himself from his personal “exile,” he must recognize and do all that is dependent upon him so that all Jews should also leave “exile.”

Indeed, one might otherwise think as follows. So-and-so is at the depths of lowliness, to the extent that he is presently still in exile, whereas he is at the ultimate height, already “prepared” for the Redemption. If so, why should his redemption be bound up with and dependent upon another’s? However, the verse at the beginning of the Torah portion Nitzavim teaches us that even the “stance” (nitzavim) of “your leaders” (rosheichem) can come about only after it has been established that “All of you stand together today,” an expression which includes even “those of you who chop wood and those of you who draw water.” 

When we follow this order, we have the promise that “‘All of you stand together today’ – a reference to the day of great judgment (Rosh HaShana)” – namely, that we stand53 and are found to be meritorious in judgment,54 and we receive an inscription and sealing for a good and sweet year, including a year of redemption,55 “G-d, your L-rd, will return your captivity,” meaning that G-d will personally extract every Jew – “You, the Jewish people, shall be gathered one by one” – very soon indeed.

(Likkutei Sichos Vol. 9, pg. 175-183; from the address of Shabbos Parshas Nitzavim-VaYeilech 5727)

 

NOTES:

1. Nitzavim 30:3.

2. See Footnote 2 in the original.

3. 30:2

4. Which is not so in the mention of, “G-d, your L-rd,” in the numerous other occurrences of this phrase later in the Torah portion.

5. See Sifri B’Haalos’cha 10:35, Massei 35:34; Megilla 29a. (But see later Footnote 11 in the original.)

6. It is significant that Rashi writes, “Our Rabbis learned, etc.,” for the simple reading of, “G-d, your L-rd, will return your captivity,” is that He will cause the Jewish people to return. However, since it says, “V’shav, etc.” (and not “V’heishiv”), the Scripture is teaching (an additional concept). Namely, that G-d will return with them.

We may assert that this is the reason why Rashi writes, “The verse should have read, ‘He will return your captivity,’” instead of, “It does not say, ‘He will return your captivity’” (as he writes in the portion Savo 26:2, “It does not say, ‘every beginning,’” especially insofar as also the Sifri and Megilla state, “‘V’heishivis not said”). Thus, Rashi employs the phrase, “The verse should have read, ‘V’heishiv,’ etc.,’” to suggest that, even according to the final conclusion of the matter, the meaning of “V’shav” includes that of “V’heishiv.”

7. 3:2

8. T’hillim 91:15

8*. And if the verse, “I am with him in suffering,” does not suffice, Rashi should have said in Shmos, “Our Rabbis learned from here, etc.”

9. As the superficial reading of the deduction from this passage is learned in Megilla ibid.

10. Yeshayahu 63:9 and as per the words of our Sages on the two passages (Taanis 16a).

11. See Footnote 11 in the original.

12. But this is a stretch, because since, “when they are to be redeemed, etc., He will return with them,” is self-understood (from Rashi’s earlier comment – that “the Divine Presence resides with the Jewish people…amidst the suffering of their exile”), the answer to his question, “the verse should have read, ‘He will return your captivity,’” is necessarily understood.

13. Yeshayahu 27:12.

14. See Footnote 14 in the original.

15. See Footnote 15 in the original.

16. Especially since it says, “G-d, your L-rd, will return (“V’shav,” not “V’heishiv”) (with) your captivity” (i.e., the meaning of “(with) your captivity” (es shvus’cha) (according to what is alluded to by the word “V’shav”) is like “with your captivity” (im shvus’cha), thus) it is logical to say that “G-d, your L-rd, will return” [i.e., G-d’s return, as it were] parallels [the return of] “your captivity,” the return [of the Jewish people] from exile. See further in the text proper, etc. – see Footnote 16 in the original.)

17. See Footnote 17 in the original.

18. See Footnote 18 in the original.

19 See Footnote 19 in the original.

20 See Footnote 20 in the original.

21 Which is not the case in Rashi’s commentary on the beginning of the portion VaYishlach.

21* 4:31.

22 VaYeira 21:22; Toldos 26:3, ibid 28; VaYeitzei 28:15.

23 VaYeira ibid, Toldos ibid 28.

24 See Rashi VaYeira ibid.

24* See D’varim 4:39; commentary of Rashi ibid 4:35, etc. – see Footnote 24* in the original.

25 Yirmiyahu 23:24.

26 Although, in general, during the time of exile this [miraculous degree of] success is not readily perceived, as it was in the times of the Holy Temple, etc. – see Footnote 26 in the original.

27 See Ester Rabba 10:11; Tanchuma Toldos 5.

28 For which reason, in the descent to Egypt there needed to be the promise “you will also go up” – from the 4 exiles (Rashi Shabbos 89b, entry beginning with the words, “I will descend”). And see [the discourse] beginning with the words, “The voice of my beloved,” of 5709 and the references there.

29 VaYechi 48:21. Also with regard to the other exiles it is written (VaEs’chanan ibid), “He will not fail to grasp you with His hands” (which echoes, “He personally…holds the hand,” in Rashi’s commentary on the verse central to our discussion).

30 For which reason Rashi cites the words, “(with) your captivity,” because this terminology proves (see above Footnote 16) “that the Divine Presence resides with the Jewish people…amidst the suffering of their exile,” and not just in a manner that resembles [what is suggested in the verse], “The L-rd will be with you,” which is said regarding the exile in Egypt. See Footnote 37.

31 Thus, Rashi is unable to say that we learn from here (Shmos 3:2) that “I am with him in suffering,” because it is explicit in Scripture, as discussed above in Section 1.

32 Especially since we may assert that there it is in accordance with the commentary of the Meztudos: “I will be with him in order to save him.”

32*See Footnote 32* in the original.

33 The fact that in the exile to Egypt the Holy One Blessed Be He hints to Moshe only the concept of “I am with him in suffering,” we may assert that the connection of G-d to the Jewish people in this manner – that He resides with them in the suffering of their exile – only began after the Giving of the Torah. 

34 This sheds light on the fact that it is specifically here (not in the portion Shmos ibid) that Rashi writes, “as it were.”

35 Like the example of a king in his palace who suffers from the affliction of his son who is in exile compared to one who descends with his son into exile or is also incarcerated with him in prison.

36 Brachos 5b, where this concept is explained.

36* See Footnote 36* in the original.

37 We may assert  that also for this reason Rashi cites the words “with your captivity.”

38 Without ruling out the first interpretation, for which reason Rashi writes, “Moreover, we could say” (and not, “An alternate interpretation” (davar acher) or the like, as is commonly found in Rashi’s commentary).  

39 See Rashi VaYigash 46:26.

40 See Footnote 40 in the original.

41 A Guide to the Perplexed 3:17.

42 D”Ch 13a.

43 See Likkutei Dibburim Vol. 1, pg. 166 ff; HaYom Yom pg. 108; among others.

44 See A Guide to the Perplexed ibid Ch. 18.

45 Yevamos 61a, beg.

46 See Footnote 46 in the original.

46* Similar to the “second soul” that exists within every single person [i.e., Jew] “a literal portion of G-d from above” (Tanya Ch. 2, beg. See glosses of the Tzemach Tzedek there, Igeres HaKodesh Section 7, among others).

47 See Footnote 47 in the original.

49 Likkutei Torah  Shir HaShirim 14c, discourse beginning with the words, “Thus the poets will say,” 5691, 5684, and in several other places.

50 See Footnote 50 in the original.

51 See Footnote 51 in the original.

52 Similarly with regard to every individual person, first he redeems the very essence of his soul (the aspect of Tziyon), which transcends division, and thereafter he redeems the revealed powers [of the soul] (“every single person”), and then also his Animal Soul and body, which are equated in terms of superficiality to the gentile nations (“the returnees of the Ammonite people”).

53 As per the commentary of Rashi (VaYeishev 37:7), “‘stood upright’ (nitzava) – it remained standing erect in its place.”

54 See the teaching of the Baal Shem Tov in HaYom Yom, pg. 90.

55 See Footnote 52 in the original.

 

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